• 2020年成人学位英语考试语法讲义:being的用法

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    2020年成人学位英语考试语法讲义:being的用法

    一、being 用作谓语动词

    1.当 being 为助动词时,用作谓语动词的 being 主要与过去分词连用,构成被动语态。如:

    I’m always being criticized. 我总是挨批。

    He is being interviewed now. 他现在正在接受面试。

    He is being met at the station tonight. 今晚有人去车站迎接他。

    2. 当 being 为连系动词时,用作谓语动词的 being 主要与形容词连用,表示临时特征或暂时现象。如:

    You’re being stupid. 你真傻。

    You are not being very polite. 你可是不大客气呀。

    Your brother is being very annoying this evening. 你兄弟今晚很烦人。

    二、being用作动名词时,“being+过去分词”作介词宾语或动词宾语的用法

    1.Water has the property of dissolving sugar, sugar (has)the property of being dissolved by water.(介词宾语)水具有溶解糖的特性,糖则具有被水溶解的特性。

    2.The object is at rest and resists being moved quickly.(动词宾语)物体静止时,它就阻止对它的迅速移动。

    3.This compound is readily decomposed by being heated.(介词宾语)这种化合物(通过)受热就易分解。

    4.On being heated, the two substances form a new compound.(介词宾语)这两种物质一遇热就生成新的化合物。

    三、being 用作非谓语动词

    1. 当 being 为助动词时,用作非谓语动词的 being 具有以下用法:

    (1) 作主语。如:

    Being lost can be a terrifying experience. 迷路可能是一种很可怕的经历。

    Being recognized wherever you go is the price you pay for being famous. 出名所付出的代价是不管你走到哪里,都会被人认出来。

    (2) 作宾语。

    He can’t stand being kept waiting. 让他等着,他可不干。

    Do you like being stared at? 你愿意人家盯着你看吗?

    (3) 作宾语补足语。如:

    I saw him being taken away by the police. 我看到他正被警察带走。

    I found myself being drawn into another dreary argument. 我发现竟然身不由己又参与了一次无聊的争论。

    It’s interesting (for children) to see a house being built. (孩子们)看造房子是挺有趣的事。

    (4) 作定语。如:

    Did you see that boy being questioned by the police? 你看见那个男孩受到警察的盘问了吗?

    We are going to reduce the number of trees being cut down. 我们要减少砍伐的树的数量。

    (5) 作状语。如:

    Being given a chance, she immediately jumped at it. 给了她这个机会,她立刻抓住了。

    Being well taken care of, she recovered quickly. 她受到很好的照顾,身体恢复得很快。

    注:有时 being可带有自己的逻辑主语(构成独立主格结构)。如:

    The question being settled, we went home. 问题解决之后,我们就回家了。

    2. 当 being 为连系动词时,用作非谓语动词的 being 具有以下用法:

    (1) 作主语。如:

    Being tired often makes me short-tempered. 我一累就容易发脾气。

    Being deaf and dumb makes communication very difficult. 又聋又哑很难与人交往。

    (2) 作宾语。如:

    I don’t like being in the office all day. 我不喜欢整天呆在办公室里。

    You can be alone without being lonely. 你可以独处而不感到寂寞。

    (3) 作宾语补足语。如:

    He said it to stop her being too proud. 他说这话是想要她不要太骄傲。

    I’m sorry to see you being so sad about it. 看到你对这事这样伤心,我很难过。

    She complains of the room being too small for her. 她埋怨房间太小了。

    (4) 作状语。如:

    Being anxious to please him, I bought him a nice present. 因为我想讨好他,我给他买了一件好礼物。

    Being unemployed, he hasn’t got much money. 由于他没有工作,他没有多少钱。

    (5) 用于独立主格结构。如:

    It being a holiday, all the shops were shut. 由于是假日,所有商店都关门了。

    The weather being hot, we had to stay at home. 由于天气炎热,我们只好呆在家里。

    There being no further business, l declare the meeting closed. 没有再要讨论的事了,我宣布散会。

    Other things being equal, Alice would marry Jim. 如果其他条件都一样的话,爱莉丝就会嫁给吉姆。

    四、being用作现在分词用法。

    (1)一种用作现在分词,是强调正在进行,尤其是在被动语态中的使用,这个时候,being只是一个描述进行时态的符号,如,The trees are being planted,这种用法比较简单,我们也很好分辨。

    (2)用作现在分词的时候.being用于作定语中,一般和过去分词连用,放在被说明名词后,表示进行时被动意义:The house being built will be our new laboratory.

    (3)being用于状语,一般有逗号,翻译时常加表示状语的词汇,如“由于……”、“……时”等:Being very tiny, aunts cannot often be seen by us.

    (4)还有一种现在分词的用法,是用作独立分词结构,含蓄的表示各种状态:

    1.There are a large number of different shapes of files, each being made for some particular kind of work.(伴随情况)各种锉刀的形状大不相同,每一种都是为特殊的一类加工而制作的。

    2.The resistance being very high, the current in the circuit is low.(条件状语)如果电阻很大,则电路内电流就小。

    3.Pumps are built in various types, their functions being the same.(让步状语)泵可制成各种形式,虽然其功能相同。

    4.That being the case, we will have to make some alternations in the plan.(原因状语)情况既然这样,我们就得把计划作一些更改。

    5.The temperature being 100℃, water boils and turns into steam.(时间状语)当温度为100℃时,水就沸腾并变为蒸气。

    (5)being用于介词后“主谓”结构中,即“介词+名词或代词+being+…”。这时介词宾语是一种复合宾语。其中being为现在分词。例如:

    1.The pressure of a gas varies inversely as its volume, with temperature being constant.在温度不变条件下,气体压力是和其体积成反比的。

    2.The current produced is the result of chemical energy being changed to electric energy.所产生的电流是化学能变为电能的结果。

    3.They insisted upon their device being tested under operating conditions.他们坚持他们的装置要在运转条件下进行试验。

    4.We are pleased at them being successful.(用their代替them,则后面being为动名词。)我们为他们成功而感到高兴。

    五、being 用法的限制

    1. 当 being 为连系动词时,非谓语动词结构 being ... 可用作主语、宾语、宾语补足语、状语等,但是不能用作定语。遇此情况,可考虑改用定语从句。如:

    凡10点钟以后仍在外面的人将被逮捕。

    误:Anyone being outside after ten o’clock will be arrested.

    正:Anyone who is outside after ten o’clock will be arrested.

    2. 当 being 为助动词时,非谓语动词结构 being ... 可用作主语、宾语、宾语补足语、状语等,也可用作定语。如:

    The house being built is our new library. 正在建的房子是我们的新图书馆。

    That picture of the children being talked to by the Prime Minister is wonderful. 那张小孩子们正在聆听首相谈话的照片照得非常好。

    六、“be+being+表语”用于表示一时的表现(这种就适用于你提出的第一个句子)

    1.He is not being modest today.他今天这样不太谦虚。

    2.They are being friendly.他们这样做就是为了表示友好。(意译)

    3.He is being a good boy today.他今天可是个好孩子。

    七、being用法小结

    (1)一般来说,在句中除去being短语后,句中缺少动词的宾语或介词的宾语,则这个being往往作动名词用。除此之外,being均作现在分词用。例如:

    Many substances are capable of being dissolved in water.许多物质能(被)溶于水。(句中去掉being dissolved in water,则介词of就缺少宾语,故这个being……为动名词短语。)

    (2)being作现在分词时,前面有助动词be,后面有过去分词,则being用于进行时被动态;作定语时一般位于所修饰的名词后面(这两种情况一般均为被动态);作状语时,一般用逗号分开;用于独立分词结构中,则除了用逗号以外,being短语前必有其自己的逻辑主语出现。现把上述小结用于下句分析:

    The rate of heat production depends also in the power being used in the heating element, this power being measured in watts.(第一个being短语为定语,第二个being结构为独立分词结构。)热量产生的速率也决定于加热元件内所用的功率,而该功率以瓦特计量之。

    (3)注意带being的固定词组“for the time being(暂时)”:

    1.He will be in charge of that work for the time being.他将暂时负责那项工作。

    2.For the time being, you can’t tell him about the news.你暂时还不能把这消息告诉他。


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