f women are mercilessly exploited（剥削）year after year, they have only themselves to blame. Because they tremble at the thought of seen in public in clothes that are out of fashion, they are always taken advantage of by the designers and the big stores . Clothes which have been worn only a few times have to be put aside because of a wardrobe（衣柜）packed full of clothes and announcing sadly that she has nothing to wear.
Changing fashions are nothing more than the intentional creation of waste. Many women spend vast sums of money each year to replace clothes that have hardly been worn. Women who cannot afford to throw away clothing in this way, waste hours of their time altering the dresses they have. Skirts are lengthened or shortened; neck lines are lowered or raised, and so on.
No one can claim that the fashion industry contributes anything really to society .Fashion designers are rarely concerned with vital thing like warmth, comfort and durability（耐用）.They are only interested in outward appearance and they take advantage of the fact that women will put up with put up with amount of discomfort, as long as they look right. There can hardly be a man who hasn't at some time in his life smile at the sight of a woman shaking in a thin dress on a winter day, or delicately picking her way though deep snow in high-heeled shoes.
When comparing men and women in the matter of fashion, the conclusions to be drawn are obvious. Do the constantly changing fashions of women's clothes, one wonders, reflect basic qualities of inconstancy and instability? Men are too clever to let themselves be cheated by fashion designers. Do their unchanging styles of dress reflect basic qualities of stability? That is for you to decide.
21.Designers and big stores always make money .
A） by mercilessly exploiting women workers in the clothing industry
B） because they are capable of predicting new fashions
C） by constantly changing the fashions in women's clothing
D） because they attach great importance to quality in women's clothing
22.To the writer, the fact that women alter their old-fashioned dresses is seen as .
A）a waste of money B）a waste of time
C）an expression of taste D）an expression of creativity
23.The writer would be less critical if fashion designers more stress on the of clothing.
A）cost B）appearance C）comfort D）suitability
24.According to the passage, which of the following statements is true.
A）New fashions in clothing are created for the commercial exploitation of women .
B）The constant in women's clothing reflect their strength.
C）The fashion industry makes an important contribution to society.
D）Fashion designs should not be encouraged since they are only welcomedby women.
25.By saying "the conclusions to be drawn are obvious"（Line 1,Part.4）the writer means that .
A）women's inconstancy in their choice of clothing is often laughed an
B）women are better able exploited greatly by fashion designers
C）men are also exploited greatly by fashion designers
D）men are more stable and reliable in character
Like fine food, good writing is something we approach with pleasure and enjoy form the first taste to the last. And good writers, like good cook, do not suddenly appear full-blown. Quite the contrary, just as the cook has to undergo an intensive training, mastering the skills of his trade ,the writer must sit at his desk and devote long hours to achieving a style in his writing, whatever its purpose schoolwork, the more effective the purely social communication. You may be sure that the effort, the more effective the writing and the more rewarding.
There are still some remote places in the world where you might find a public scribe to do your business or social writing for you, for a free. There are a few managers who are lucky enough to have the service of that rare king of secretary who can take care of all sorts of letter writing with no more than a quick note to work form. But for most of us, if there is any writing to be done, we have to do it ourselves.
We have to write school papers, business or home paper. We are constantly called on to put words to paper. It would be different to count the number of such words, messages, letter and reports put into the mails or delivered by hand, but the daily figure must be enormous. What is more, everyone who writes, expects, or at least hopes, that his writing will be read, We want to arouse（引起）and hold the interest of the "letter-to-read" file（档案）or into a wastepaper basket. This is the reason we bend our efforts toward learning and practicing the file of interesting, effective writing.
26.In this passage, good writing is compared to fine food because .
A） both worker and cooks have to work long hours every day
B） both are essential to life
C） both writers and cooks can earn a good living
D） both are enjoyable
27.A public "scribe"（Line 1, Para 2）is .
A） a secretary who does your business or social writing
B） a machine that does writing for your
C） a public school where writing is taught
D） a person who earns a living by writing for others
28.According to the passage, some managers don't have to do any writing because .
A） they rely on quick notes B）they have excellent secretaries
C） they have a computer to do it D） they prefer making phone calls
29. According to the author, if you r letter is thrown into some "letter-to-be-read" file, .
A） it will receive immediate attention
B） it will be dealt with by the secretary
C） it is likely to be neglected
D） it is meant to be delivered
30.The purpose of the author in writing this passage is .
A） to explain and persuade B） to interest and entertain
C） to comment and criticize D） to argue and demonstrate
There is a popular belief among parents that schools are no longer interested in spelling. No school I have taught in has ever ignored spelling or considered it unimportant as a basic skill. There, however, vastly different ideas about how to teach it, or how much priority（优先）it must be give over general language development and writing ability. The problem is, how to encourage a child to express himself freely and confidently in writing without holding him back with his the complexities of spelling?
If spelling becomes the only focal point of his teacher's interest, clearly a bright child will be likely to"play safe".He will tend to write only words within his spelling range, choosing to avoid adventurous language. That's why teachers often encourage the early use of dictionaries and pay attention to content rather than technical ability.
I was once shocked to read on the bottom of a sensitive piece of writing about a personal experience:"This work is terrible! There are far too many spelling errors and your writing is illegible（难以辨认的）."It may have been a sharp criticism of the pupil's technical abilities in writing., but it was also a sad reflection on the teacher who had omitted to read the essay, which contained some beautiful expressions of the child's deep feelings. The teacher was not wrong to draw attention to the errors, but if his priorities had centered on the child's ideas, an expression of his disappointment with the presentation would have the pupil more motivation to seek improvement.
31.Teacher differ in their opinions about .
A） the difficulties in teaching spelling
B） the role of spelling in general language development
C） the complexities of the basic writing skills
D） the necessity of teaching spelling
32.The expression"play safe"probably means .
A） to write carefully
B） to do as teachers say
C） to use dictionaries frequently
D） to avoid using words one is not sure of
33.Teachers encourage the use of dictionaries so that .
A） students will be able to express their ideas more freely
B） teachers will have less trouble in correcting mistakes
C） students have more confidence in writing
D） students will learn to be independent of teacher
34.The writer seem to think that the teacher's judgment on that sensitive piece of writing is .
A） reasonable B）unfair C）foolish D）careless
35.The major point discussed in the passage is .
A） the importance of developing writing skills
B） the complexities of spelling
C） the correct way of marking compositions
D） the relationship between spelling and the content of a composition
Salt is necessary to life as water. In many areas of Mrica people once drank the urine（尿）of animals because they had no other source of salt. Without salt, human being die.
The human body demands that the amount of salt in the blood always stay the same. When the body does not get enough salt, it protect itself by letting less salt leave the body in urine and sweat. But it cannot reduce this output to zero. Some salt is always escaping. On a completely saltless diet, like that of some people in Africa, the body steadily loses small amounts of salt though the kidney（肾）and sweat glands（腺）. It then tries to adjust to this loss by speeding up its secretion（分泌）of water. In this way, the body attempts to keep the amount of salt in the blood at the necessary level. The result is a slow drying up of body and, finally, death. The person dies of thirst.
In cases where there is little or no water to drink, the body tries to do the opposite thing. Again, it must keep the salt level in the blood constant. Because it attempts to stop water from leaving the body and to increase its secretion of salt. But, as with the escaping salt, it cannot be completely successful. Some water still leaves and the person eventually dies of thirst. In short, the body's normal needs for salt and for water are both parts of the same important need to keep the salt level in the blood constant.
36. Some African people once drank animal urine .
A）when they were going to die
B）because they were thirsty
C）because there was litter salt
D）because they were short of water
37. In order to adjust to the loss of salt, the body .
A）lose some blood
B）speeds up its secretion of water
C）speeds up its secretion of salt
D）is drying up slowly
38. Which of the following statement is NOT the result of a salt in the body?
A）The body secretes more water
B）The body dries up
C）The person dies of thirst
D）The person gets fatter
39. what does the word "constant"（Line 2,Pare.3）mean in the passage?
A）The same B）Amount C）Going up and down D）Changing
40. What is the main idea of the passage?
A）Salt is very important .
B）If their blood salt level is not constant, human being may die.
C）The amount of salt in the body is secreted.
D）People can die of thirst.
PartⅠ. Vocabulary and Structure Part
1.C 2.B 3.A 4.A 5A. 6.A 7.A 8.D 9.B 10.B
11.C 12. C 13. D 14. A 15. D 16.D 17. C 18. A 19.A 20.D
PartⅡ. Reading Comprehension
21.C 22.B 23.C 24. A 25.D
26.D 27.D 28.B 29. C 30.D
31.B 32.D 33.A 34. B 35.D
36.C 37. B 38. D 39. A 40.B
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